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About paper


History
Paper has been traced to China in about AD 105. It reached Central Asia by 751 and Baghdad by 793, and by the 14th century there were paper mills in several parts of Europe. The invention of the printing press in about 1450 greatly increased the demand for paper, and at the beginning of the 19th century wood and other vegetable pulps began to replace rags as the principal source of fibre for papermaking.
Before 1798, Nicholas-Louis Robert constructed the first paper-making machine. Using a moving screen belt, paper was made one sheet at a time by dipping a frame or mold with a screen bottom into a vat of pulp. A few years later the brothers Henry and Sealy Fourdrinier improved Robert's machine, and in 1809 John Dickinson invented the first cylinder machine.
Although almost all steps in papermaking have become highly mechanized, the basic process has remained essentially unchanged. First, the fibres are separated and wetted to produce the paper pulp, or stock. The pulp is then filtered on a woven screen to form a sheet of fibre, which is pressed and compacted to squeeze out most of the water. The remaining water is removed by evaporation, and the dry sheet is further compressed and, depending upon the intended use, coated or impregnated with other substances.
Differences among the grades and types of paper are determined by several factors: the type of fibre used; the preparation of the pulp, either by mechanical (groundwood) or chemical (primarily sulfite, soda, or sulfate) methods, or by a combination of the two; by the addition of other materials to the pulp, among the most common being bleach or colouring and sizing, the latter to retard penetration by ink; by conditions under which the sheet is formed, including its weight; and by the physical or chemical treatments applied to the finished sheet.
Although wood has become the major source of fibre for papermaking, rag fibres are still used for paper of maximum strength, durability, and permanence. Recycled wastepaper (including newsprint) and paperboard are also important sources. Other fibres used include straw, bagasse (residue from crushed sugarcane), esparto, bamboo, flax, hemp, jute, and kenaf. Some paper, particularly specialty items, is made from synthetic fibres.
Weight or substance per unit area, called basis weight, is measured in reams (now commonly 500 sheets). Paper is also measured by caliper (thickness) and density. The strength and durability of paper is determined by factors such as the strength and length of the fibres, as well as their bonding ability, and the formation and structure of the sheet. The optical properties of paper include its brightness, colour, opacity, and gloss. Among the most important paper grades are bond, book, bristol, groundwood and newsprint, kraft, paperboard, and sanitary.
What is Nepali Handmade Paper ?
Hand made paper is made from the inner bark of a wild understorey shrubs locally known as "Lokta" or Daphne Cannabina or Daphne Papyracea which is found at altitude of 6500 feet to 9500 feet.
These plants are observed growing gregariously in the understorey of both coniferous and broad leafed forests. At favourable sites it attains a height of 10 to 15 feet with basal diameter ranging from 2 to 3 inches. The leaves are alternate green in colour, 2 to 4 inches long and 0.5 to 1 inch wide. The flowers are white with a sweet smelling scent.
The inner fibrous bark of this plant is the raw material used for the making of Nepali hand made paper. The "Lokta" or Daphne Papyracea has characteristics of growing after cutting from above 6 inches from the ground and becomes again matured to cut after 6 to 8 years.
Thus it preserves the fragile forest ecology of Nepal.The long fibrous in hand made paper is prized for its rough attractive texture its durability, strength and its resistance to insects.
Lokta Paper Characteristics Long lasting and excellent durability Strength and easily foldable without any crinkle and corrugation Excellent for its' rough and attractive texture Free from germs and highly resistant to the insects like silverfish, paper crawlers etc Non-demolishing immediately in the water too. Easy to dye in water with fast color Ideal in production without using any machines in entire process
Resistance to aging
In the past one stated that up to 90% of the book and document existence were threatened by the decay. This was among other things because of the chemical composition (wood, sour glue with high groundwood portion) of the manufactured papers. Heat, cold weather and air humidity added to the papers likewise. Today papers are manufactured pH-neutrally. They are age-resisting, i.e. they have a value in use of several hundred years. Papers from waste paper or with high groundwood portion are less durable than papers without cellulose or even rags fibers (recycling papers have nevertheless a age stability of over 100 years).
Bleaching process
In order to be able, become to manufacture white paper fibrous materials in different procedures bleached. Bleaching processes with chlorine gas /elementary chlorine lead to high waste water loads with organic chlorine compounds. Bleaching processes with the substantially more expensive chlorine dioxide are characterised already by a strongly reduced waste water load. Bleaching processes with oxygen-containing bleaches (e.g. oxygen, hydrogen peroxide) lead to no loads with organic chlorine compounds. see oxygen bleaching
see ecf
see tcf
Sheet
Designation starting from paper size DIN A3 upward.
"Bütten" paper
High-quality papers with an untrimmed edge (Büttenedge). In former times characteristics for handdrawn paper, today predominantly machine production.
Free from chlorine/chlorine arm
When these designations it does not concern the paper and its possible chlorine concentration. Rather they refer to the bleaching procedure during the fibrous material production. When papers become “chlorine-poor” designation, with whose fiber-bleach the waste water load one reduces. The used cellulose is bleached thereby frequently without chlorine gas (elementary chlorine) and instead of its with chlorine dioxide. Additionally often one environmentalorients, one before-bleaches e.g. with hydrogen peroxide. The AOX value is < 0.5 kg related to 1000 kg paper-free from chlorine (tcf) meant absolutely free from chlorine = AOX value = 0,0.
see ecf
see tcf
Thickness
The thickness of a paper is measured in µm and/or thousandth millimeters. 80g/m2 of copying papers have a thickness of approx. 100 µm. In the everyday life papers are selected however on the basis their weight per unit area. DIN formats (DIN row A) Each format is doubly or half as largely as the next, e.g.
DIN A8 - 52 x 74 mm
DIN A7 - 74 x 105 mm
DIN A6 - 105 x 148 mm
DIN A4 - 210 x 297 mm
DIN A3 - 297 x 420 mm
DIN A2 - 420 x 594 mm
DIN A1 - 594 x 841 mm
DIN A0 - 841 x 1189 mm (= 1 square meter)
Elephant strike similar paper
Particularly treated, specially tough paper with strong structure (elephant strike similar). Employment as bills of fare, documents and book merging off.
Moisture content
The hygroscopic paper structure stretches or shrinks strongly on change of the room climate (humidity + temperature). The preservation of the natural moisture content (equilibrium moisture) from paper is in the case of transport to consider storage and processing (ideal conditions for trimmed papers: 18 - 20° and 50 x 55% relative dampness).
Weight per unit area
The weight per unit area or also grammage of the paper mentioned, indicates, how much gram a square meter paper weighs. DIN A0 the format has a size of 841mm x 1189 mm, which corresponds to a square meter and/or the weight of 16 DIN A4 sheets. Abbreviation: e.g. 80 g/m2.
Format differences
In Paper piles lengthening and width fluctuations can occur. Reason: not completely accurate cut. According to the trading conditions of the paper industry these differences within clearly defined borders must be tolerated.
Coined/shaped paper
“Linen-coined/shaped” typewriting paper, “hammered” Bütten board, pergamin with “spider coinage”. Those are only some examples of the various possibilities later of pressing with embossing roller (- plates) into the surface of paper examinations/structures.
see surface finish
History of the paper
Year
The production of paper describes 105 the Chinese Eunuch Tsái Lun
650 arising paper money in China among emperors Kao Tsung
1144 first paper mill in Spain
1246 oldest received German paper handwriting of the Passauer Domdechanten
1390 establishment first German paper mill in Nuremberg The printing art invents
1445 good mountain
1711 invention of the dutchman
1771 patent for a paper-making machine
1844 invention groundwood manufacturing processes
1851 first production of cellulose
1884 first use of Toilettenpapier in role form in the USA
1891 invention of the Sulfatverfahrens
1906 in California are made the first milk bag of paper
The company Feldmühle the then largest paper-making machine of the world in enterprise took 1928 in Germany; them were 6 m broad, ran about 300 m/min and produced maximally 100 tons per day. Winner powers a pro head paper consumption of 7kg specify 1945 in the Potsdamer agreement.
1955 propagation of the colour print bring an upswing to magazines and pictorials
1979 start-up of the first CTMP plant (chemi termo mechanical pulp) in Sweden
1990 due to environmental problems take the paper industry parting from elementary-chlorine-bleach.
1999 the employment of waste paper rises to 61%
until 2010 sound of a study of the world nourishing organization (FAO) will rise annually paper consumption around 3%.
Weight tolerances
Despite highly developed control devices occasional weight fluctuations are inevitable during the paper trade. They may not cross however the limit values specified uniformly in the trading conditions of the paper industry (maximally 5%).
Smoothness
satinage
Congratulation map cardboard
Usually high-whiter, often on one side more painted (with various fantasyful coinages provided cardboard 200 - 240 g/qm) to the production of congratulation maps.
“pavement grip”
The different thickness, hardness and rigidity of paper can be felt subjectively as “pavement grip” (no unit).
Hadern paper
Predominantly from textile wastes (cotton, linen, hemp) manufactured papers. For very steady, valuable long-lived documents, notes, documents. Up to 18. Century were Hadern (rag) the only raw material for the paper trade.
Hammer blow coinage
Additional coinage of the paper or cardboard with a hammer effect. For letter elbow, visiting cards..
Handmade drawn paper
This method was used since the invention of the paper making (approx. 60 v. Chr.) up to the development of the paper-making machine (1799/Louis Robert). With the help of a filter-covered drawing framework the papermaker scooped the thin, aqueous paper pulp from the “Bütte”. Today still in museums and by artistic papermakers paper is handdrawn. Handdrawn nature papers can exhibit larger differences due to the manner of processing in the color, in the format and with the weight per unit area. This represents no lack, but makes each elbow a Unikat. General it is to be considered that nature papers are not cut quadripartite.
Woodfree papers
Main raw material is cellulose. According to DIN 6730 only papers with at least 95% cellulose apply as papers without cellulose. see also medium-fine papers papers easily containing wood predominantly made of groundwood. They contain 6 to 75% groundwood.
Japanese papers
names papers from Japan, which are made there of native fibrous materials. For genuine Japanpapier, Washi (of wa = Japan and shi = paper) mentioned, uses one prefer
the plants Kozo, Mitsumata, Gampi and Kuwakawa (mulberrytree). During the manual production it is considered as special art to dip the filter mostly consisting of bamboo in a certain rhythm several times into the paper pulp. The out sort-pure fibers of made papers exhibit a particularly beautiful gloss, which still strengthens with increasing age of the paper. The procedure of the paper trade arrived from China over Korea in 7. Century to Japan.
Climatic fluctuations
Plastic-coated (PE) ream wrapper protects copying papers against negative influences by the circulating air dampness. The copying paper is manufactured with extremely low dampness of 25 - 35%. Without protection packing the paper can become wavy. If the circulating air is damper or drier than the paper, the paper takes the values of the circulating air and changes. Dry areas lead to the fact that the paper edges shrink. The paper „tellert “. To high humidity leads to expanding the paper edges and to waving the paper. The paper becomes edge wavy. Bad climatic conditions lead inevitable to run problems, back-up, bad efficiency, formation of wrinkles in particular with the duplex operation as well as to a bad toner transmission, which can lead to pressure omissions. Prevent: Paper should be stored in air-conditioned areas. The ideal ambient temperature amounts to 18 - 22°C and the relative humidity 50 - 60°C. Ensure for the fact that the paper can acclimatise itself. Copying papers are packed into a special paper (ream wrapper). ream wrapper protects the paper against climatic influences. Unpack only the necessary quantity paper and avoid you the open storage. Make sure that you insert the paper correctly. Consider the arrow on the packing, which to those or side which can be printed on which can be copied first points. Arrow on paper packages
Climatic conditions
Optimal climatic conditions for papers: 18 - 22 C° and 50 - 60% relative humidity.
Papers easily containing wood
The groundwood portion lies between 20 and 30%. sees also medium-fine papers
Linen-coined/shaped paper
Writing paper with linen-like coined/shaped surface texture.
Light-genuine paper
100%igen protection from fading under effect of daylight and warmth does not give it for paper. Raw materials without cellulose and appropriate pigments can retard the change of colour.
Loktha of papers/ Nepali papers
In Asia the art to make paper has a long tradition. Therefore the raw materials are won from natural resources:
from the fibrous interior bark of the Loktha shrubs. The mezereum (daphne papyracea), as the bush is also called, belongs to the family of the Thymelaeceen.
The special advantage of this raw material is its long fibre, for this the paper is very elastic and firm.
Due to its climatic requirements the plant grows only in the moderate widths of Europe and Asia. And in the Himalayas it grows only about 6000 to 10000 feet in west Nepal and up to 3500 meters in east Nepal, in the underwoods or in the umbrageous seam of the woods.
Manila cardboard
Tough, glossy finished, brownish-yellow cardboard (e.g. hanging briefcases), which was manufactured in former times from Manila hemp wastes.
PAPER DIN FORMATS
Remarks as…
DIN A 0 84.1 cm x 118.9 cm (= 1 square meter;) Poster (four-fold elbow, reference format)
DIN A 1 59.4 cm x 84.1 more cm Poster (double elbow)
DIN a2 42.0 cm x 59.4 more cm Poster (single elbow)
DIN A 3 29.7 cm x 42.0 cm (half elbow)
DIN A 4 21.0 cm x 29.7 more cm (quarterly elbow)
DIN A 5 14.8 cm x 21.0 cm record sheet (sheet/eighth elbow)
DIN A 6 10.5 cm x 14.8 cm postcard (half sheet)
DIN A 7,7.4 cm x 10.5 cm passport (quarterly sheet)
DIN A 8,5.2 cm x 7.4 cm Visit card/credit card (5.4 cm x 8.6 cm)
DIN A 9,3.7 cm x 5.2 cm passport photo size (3.5 cm x 4.5 cm)
DIN A 10,2.6 cm x 3.7 cm special stamp size, label
DIN A 11,1.8 cm x 2.6 cm stamp size
DIN A 121.3 cm x 1.8 cm thumb nail size
Lines B goes out from
DIN B 0 = 100.0 cm up x 141.4 cm.
Lines C goes out from
DIN C 0 = 91.7 cm up x 129.7 cm.
Lines D goes out from
DIN D 0 = 77.1 cm up x 109.0 cm.
Lines E goes out from DIN E 0 = 80.0 cm up x 112.0 cm
These rows apply to envelopes, file folders, temporary fasteners and files. The side lengths of these standards always behave in the relationship 1: Ö 2 (= 1:1,4142)
Quality
Noblest paper quality is handdrawn or at least machine-drawn Büttenpapier with a usually untrimmed uneven edge.
Roughness
The surface texture of a paper can be compared with the surface of a map. Can „the holes “between the fibers with unpainted papers be compared with the distance between mountains and valleys, whereby the surface of painted papers is substantially smoother.
Raw materials
Groundwood: For the production of groundwood the trunks are released from the crust and on approximately a meter for a long time wood-flog truncated. The ecorticate trunks become between rotary whet-stones under flowing water slured. With this applied procedure staying of wood components is unfavorable such as lignin or resin in the won fibrous material. An optically disturbing yellowish hue of the groundwood is lightened by bleaching. The raw material yield lies nearly optimally with 95%. see papers containing wood Cellulose: Cellulose is the synthetic material won from vegetable raw materials on chemical way. From the wood made smaller to shred one wins depending upon the used chemical solution sulfate and Sulfitzellstoff. The Sulfatverfahren for the wood explanation works with caustic solution, while with the Sulfitverfahren acid is used for the production. Crucially with this kind of the fibrous material production extracting all not-fibrous components of the wood e.g. is, like lignin contrary to the groundwood. The raw material yield lies depending upon procedure between 25 and 35%, which brings obligatorily a rise of the costs of the fibrous material production with itself. Cellulose is the main raw material for papers without cellulose (over 95%). Main supplier countries: Scandinavia, the USA, Canada Waste paper: Beside the groundwood and the cellulose the waste paper has a large portion of the paper trade. Waste paper is used and/or from the production or processing led back paper with gräulicher colouring. Is used unsorted waste paper, from which in a first processing step the printing ink is extracted (De-Inking). The waste paper portion of production amounts to in the German paper industry over 61%.
Processing of raw materials Suspending in the Pulper: The mostly air-dried cellulose fiber bundles are divided in a container (Pulper or material dissolver) under addition by plentifully water by whirling into single fibers. Develops a mash, which consists of 5 parts fibrous material and 95% water. Grinding: The different grindings of the fibrous materials and/or fibers coin/shape the character of a paper. With the help of a Kegelrefiners one has the possibility of grinding the fibers either very briefly or long according to the intended purpose. Additional crimpings of the fibers in the Refiner gives firmness to the paper. Addition of auxiliary and fillers, optical brightener and gluing materials: Auxiliary and fillers improve the opacity, increase the white one and make possible for soft and more supply becoming surface with increased smoothness. Furthermore optical brightener is admitted to the paper for improvement the white one. There is materials, which absorb invisible UV light. Gluing materials give absorbency to the paper, provide for a good describability, hardness and a sound.
Oxygen bleaching hydrogen peroxide
As replacement for chlorine oxygen or oxygen interfaces can be used. A bleaching with hydrogen peroxide is the bleaching process at present most environmentalpreserving, because it disintegrates into water and oxygen.
Acidless paper
Type of paper, which no acid and also no remainder chemicals, the acid produce, contains. It has a pH value of more than 7 pH, is easily alkaline thereby and also than is neutralglued designated. If by a paper resistance to aging is required, such qualities are to be preferred.
Transparency papers
Uniformity and high examination (= transparency) are reached by finer grinding of the fibers.
Volume
The volume (volume) of the paper determines the relationship between its thickness and the g/m2 weight. With same grammage a paper is all the more handy, the more volume it is. e.g. paper weight 100 g/qm, thickness, 0.100 mm
Thickness = volume 0.100 mm
Weight per unit area 0.100 kg = simple volume with 0.200 mm = two-way volume 0.100 kg
One differentiates papers with simple, 1,5, 1.75 - and 2,2-fachem volume. Higher volumes are very often used in the book trade, in order to receive also with small page number a larger book strength
Forerunner of the paper
Papyrus - made of the papyrus plant domestic in Africa
Pergament - made of untanned skins of young sheep and goats
Amatl - manufactured in the culture area of the Mayas from the internal crust of the fig tree
Tapa - from the culture area of the Aztecs from the crust of certain trees and bushes
Loktha - is a Nepalese fiber, which is won from the internal crust of the Nepalpaperdaphne.
Water
Without water no paper. That is because of it that during the paper trade the water is not simply only means of transport for the fibers during sheet forming, but also chemical and physical forces between the fibers effectuation. The paper industry ranks among the water-intensive branches of industry. In order to lower the fresh water need, the production water is used several times. That led in the course of the decades to a clear decrease of the fresh water need. While 1940 up to 600 litres water were needed for 1 kg paper, today the average water requirement is below 20 litres for 1 kg paper. The paper pulp consists to 99% of water and only to 1% of fibers and fillers.
White one
The white one with cellulose and/or paper becomes through - > bleaching as well as optical (chemical) optical brightener reach. Measuring procedure: ISO. A very crucial criterion for the qualitative allocation of paper. The white one (the white content) measured compared with magnesium oxide, whose reflecting ability for light of all colors is set equal 100%.
Tariff
Height measurement with tabulation papers (1 tariff = 2.54 cm)
The tissues and laces are thin, yet strong papers made in Japan and Thailand. The various fibers they are made from include Manila hemp, rayon, and kozo. These papers are excellent choices for making invitations, lampshades, collage, and many other decorative purposes.